Here are two terms I have seen in the forums and heard used in videos and live streams
Roping - letting the turn timer almost run out before playing a card / passing.
BM (bad manners) - after you have passed and the opponent has clearly won, they continue to play the rest of their cards. Some people consider this bad manners.
A few other more or less common speaking:
Wiping (Cleaning the Board or a single Unit in one wipe)
Hype (Net Deck, Top 10 lists, etc.)
Meta : Basicly the summary of what "everyone else" is playing. For example: If i write Meta, i think of GwentDBs Top 10. You could also describe it as "The others", but it also means the Guys wich are playing at your specific ranking/MMR.
Ping : Deal 1 Damage (Trebuchet for example)
Burn your Handcards : Waisting Cards or pass the point of passing (merely the same as bleeding)
AP = Attack Power : The strength of a Card. Havent seen anyone using any term for this. It seems common to describe Cards just with a Number instead of AP, strenght or whatever.
Also, could you add a list of Decktypes?
Maybe this could help to "speak one language" now and in the Future.
For example: Alot of Decks are Aggro-Types but i rarely read terms like "Aggro", "Swarming" or "Spamming".
Control-Decks (Weather Control, Board Control, Hand-Control, Deck-Control, Graveyard-Control)
Aggro-Decks, Shuffle-Decks, Reveal-Decks, Steal-Decks, Replay-Decks, Chain-Decks (Ress Chain-Combo / Something - Chain-Combo), Lock-Decks, Buff-Decks, Consume-Decks, Snowball-Decks, Wipe-Decks and Combos.