I had similar happen in the New Vegas Lonesome Road. Got stuck in the exploding missile silo elevator... had to use the noclip command to go through the elevator and get to the exit.
Unfortunately I play on consoles so no command to get me out of trouble. The journal that was the quest objective spawned under the ground and was unreachable. You needed to pick it up so the ghost would open the way out of the dungeon. Eventually I did end up starting a new game, but that was 100+ hours wasted. So I took a few years off.